BROILERS: MEAT PRODUCTION

Introduction.

Broiler Production involves raising chicks from day old to five to six weeks to achieve body weight of 2-2.8kg while they are still juvenile for meat production. Broilers are genetically designed for high growth rate, extensive muscle development, and high feed conversion ratio. Broilers can also be reared in high density.

With the continuous ban on the importation of poultry products, the demand for local broiler production has tremendously increased.  Poultry Association of Nigeria posted that our present production rate is merely equivalent to about 2.06kg per capita annually hence grossly below the FAO expectation of 34kg per capita .

 OPPORTUNITY

The demand for poultry (broiler meat) is ever increasing. It is one business that the opportunity for growth ever remains large. Continuous exploitation and expansion will be the status of the industry for a long time. Below are few exploitable opportunities to be exploited.

  1. A weekly harvest of 1000 birds has the potential of a gross profit of about N460, 000/week
  2. Expanding to as much as 100,000 birds per week are market realities
  3. Further packaging of the meat by grilling and selling same to grocery stores are no more novel in Nigeria and the demand is daily increasing
  4. Demand for Minced meat, hot dog, deboned meat and other value added poultry have recently increased tremendously
  5. Distribution of cold chicken to an ever demanding restaurant, cold rooms, eateries and hotels is an opportunity waiting to be tapped.
  6. Further expansion to mechanization by the introduction of cages, full automated processing line etc can enhance the capacity of the project to as much as 30 tons per day
  7. Other opportunities include integration of feed production and day old chick production reducing cost of production further to about 17%

 

Marketing Channels

Presently,

  1. Eateries, hotels, schools and the government especially with the ‘Feed the child a day’ plan
  2. Companies that purchase in bulk by weight, to dress and sell.
  3. Direct sale via own cold room
  4. Sell directly to festive celebrants during festivity.
  5. Repackaging for grocery store by grilling, mincing etc

 

Management

Good management is important to the success of this project. Learning before commencement is better than learning on the job because poultry is capital-intensive hence not suitable for experimentation.

Inputs such as drinkers, feeders for chicks and growers, brooding gas or charcoal pots, litter materials, feed and water must be those that have to be accepted as suitable by experienced experts or farmers.

 

Water

Utilizing the automatic bell drinker will minimize water spillage, water contamination and save labour. Water management is a critical factor. Easy to manage but often mismanaged leading to catastrophic result. Water is ad libitum (continuous) in all poultry. In small poultry, on the litter system, care must be taken to ensure that the birds do not scratch litters into the water because this contaminate, infects and starve the birds. Routine and constant practice is to frequently lift and clear the drinkers, position them a little higher as the birds grow and minimize contamination and spillage by all means to reduce incidence of water starvation, coccidiosis and salmonelloses. Water source must also be tested to ensure its freedom from contamination. Water test often target coliform levels, Plan would be to put in place a water treatment provision.

 

Feeding

Broilers are fed ad libitum as well. Conversion ratio is about 0.53 (53%). Birds should be encouraged to feed 24 hours to ensure that by the end of six or seven weeks, they weigh above average. The bottom line in broiler production is the more they eat, the more they weigh.

 

Brooding

Brooding temperature is 31’C. Proper temperature and humidity shall be maintained throughout the first two weeks. Paper on the floor is the preferred litter in brooding. Ensure that the birds do not hurdle together because it could lead to death by suffocation.

Processing.

Plan should be to harvest weekly. Utilizing a mini processor the birds that have attained the desired average weight are moved to the processing plant utilizing the transport crate. About ten birds could go in a crates. Bird are not fed on  the day of slaughter. The birds are first stun on line, bleed utilizing a cone, the passed through a scalder and then a plucker or defeathering machine where the feathers are mechanically removed. The bird at this point could be cleaned with a cold water. Eviseration could be done manually for this capacity. Head and shank separated as offals, the gizzard is further cleaned. The birds are finally inspected, drained and packed. They are sorted and packed in bags for cold room.

Training Module

For the purpose of training, Let us assume that one wishes to commence broiler production on a commercial level and he wishes to start with 1000 bird capacity per week. This will imply that he/she will have six batches of  1000 birds in six different pen.

Construction cost is about N1,500, 000/pen hence N9. Million for six pens

The total population of the birds in six weeks (peak) would be 6000 birds

This module assumes deep litters.

Commencing with 1000 broilers per batch, 1100 birds shall be acquired from reputable hatchery.

Batch requirement for purchase of DOC is about N170, 000; Note that prices of broilers range from N110 to N250/chicks

These birds shall be transported by under good weather, preferably night to the farm for brooding.

Brooding:

Chick brooding entails provision of Adequate heat of about 32’C.

Material needed for brooding:

  1. Brooder; a heat source which could be charcoal pot, gas brooder or electric brooder.
  2. Litter materials; preferably old news paper
  3. Feeding Trays
  4. Chick drinkers

In addition to above,

  • The brooder house should be covered but opening for adequate ventilation.
  • Most chicks with start at the first day with Starter feed or Super starter.
  • Glucose and sometime antibiotics could be necessary to add to their water on the first day. Continue with antibiotic for the next three days.

Brooding time will require that the birds are attended to continuously I the first three days under 24 hours. This is to ensure that the heat source is not off, and the light is continually on.

Lighting in broiler house is permanently on for night feeding.

Heat source could be removed by second week depending on the weather condition.

 

 

Management

Broilers are thence housed, fed and watered ad libitum (meaning continuously) day and night for six weeks. (Could be early as five weeks)

The birds at the target maturity shall be harvested by utilizing a mini processing line.

At each point in time, another batch will be in the process to ensure an initial weekly 1000 birds harvest. Target is to achieve 2,500kg each time hence about 4,000kg of feed which will cost N440, 000 (i.e. for 160 bags) will be needed.

For this Module, cost of salary, fuel and medication per batch (weekly cost) will be about N80, 000.

Total cash outflow is in the average of N690, 200 weekly.

Initial cash requirement for this module would be about N23.million (without any cost of cold van).

The module here presented assumed that stocking is weekly hence a cash flow projection is attached to present a picture of flow for a 35 weeks period. Gross profit is about N560,000 weekly and N2.8million monthly resulting in a possible annual gross profit of about N28 million.

All things being equal, the projection has the potential of breaking even in the first year post production.

 

Table 1: FEED QUANTITY AND FEEDING COST FOR 1000 BROILERS ( 6 WEEKS)

WEEK                           FEED (kg)                   FEED (25 kg bag)                           COST (N)

1                                        160                                   6.5                                       21,490

2                                        430                                    17.2                                       49,500

3                                       665                                    26.6                                      74,250

4                                       798                                    31.9                                       88,000

5                                       897                                     35.88                                     99,000

6                                       1,070                                  42.8                                         118,250

TOTAL                            4,020                                  160.8                                      442,200

 

Challenges of broiler farming;

  1. High cost of infrastructure. Materials such as cold room, generators, cold van and processing line are capital intensive.
  2. Electricity is needed 24 hours throughout the year to maintain the processed broilers in frozen condition; cost of diesel could greatly affect net profit.
  3. Broilers are most often consumed by the middle class hence target marketing is necessary to achieve result.
  4. Prices of Day old chicks fluctuates hence cost production per batch varies widely. As a farm progresses and expand, DOC production could be introduced to check this fluctuation.

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