VENTILATION & MANAGING HEAT STRESS IN POULTRY HOUSE

VENTILATION IN POULTRY HOUSE

High ambient temperature and humidity adversely affects poultry production. The poultry farmer can do much so as to positively influence bird performance during heat stress through a combination of proper feeding strategies.

Current requirements for ventilation in a poultry house are close to ideal, but not as close as possible. The finesses of optimal ventilation is in the key which is not to ventilate according to the weight of birds (amount of kilos) in the house, but ventilate according to metabolic weight and take the effects of wind chill into the equation.

Research has shown that there is a lot to gain with proper ventilation. The metabolic weight of small chicks is about double of the actual weight. When the chicks weigh in at around 1 kilogram (kg) the metabolic weight is equal to the real weight and above 1 kg the metabolic weight is a little lower. That means that minimum ventilation at the start of the round should be cranked up, while at the end of the round maximum ventilation can be somewhat reduced.

To make things even more complicated there is the effect of wind chill which according to Wageningen University the ideal temperature of the broiler is the absolute air temperature (as shown on a thermometer) + the relative humidity = 90. Above the value of 115 a broiler has serious heat stress, below 50 cold stress.

In practice that means that at 20C and a humidity of 50% a broiler is cold. The other way around, at a comfortable 20C at humidity of 90% the bird has serious trouble to loose body heat unless wind speed is added to the equation. An air current of 1m/sec at 35C degrees and a humidity of 50% can chill up to 10 degrees.

Nutritional management of heat stress

Timing of feeding is an important factor in alleviating heat stress effects on feed intake and utilisation. Therefore, the major part of the diet should be made accessible to the birds at times of relatively low temperature (early morning and late evening) with the remaining part thereof to be made available all the time.

Broiler chickens appear to be more responsive to the timing of feeding than laying hens. In most cases, the proper timing of feeding could by itself alleviate many of the problems associated with heat stress in broilers, but have not been an adequate measure for layers. It is, therefore, suggested that other feed management factors should also be considered in this latter case for better laying performance. For example, feed should always be fresh and not be stored for longer than two months, especially in summer to reduce the possibility of mycotoxin build up.

Furthermore, feed should be properly processed (crumb, pellets, or mash), with extra feeders to be provided in order to encourage appetite on hot days. It might also be of benefit to dim the lights while feeding, in order to reduce activity and hence minimise heat load on the birds.

Raising the nutrient intake during heat stress, by changing the feed specification, may have a detrimental effect on survivability, but increasing the digestibility of nutrients and the use of specialist micro ingredients has been shown to have benefits. The principle nutrients to consider are:

Proteins and amino acids: nutrient digestibility should be increased rather than nutrient density, minimise excess protein and balance amino acids and minimise the crude protein level in the diet.

Vitamins and minerals: certain vitamins are known to have a positive effect on the birds’ response to heat stress including Vitamin E, D, A, C, B2 and nicotinic acid. Under no circumstances should vitamins be withdrawn from the diet.

Energy: the diet should be supplemented with fat rather than carbohydrate. Increasing the energy density of the diet will increase growth rate but will also increase heat output.

As temperature increases, the bird has to maintain the balance between heat production and heat loss, and so will reduce its feed intake. Trials indicate that feed intake is reduced by 5% for every 1C rise in temperature between 32-38C.

Reduced feed intake is the main cause of poor performance. As a general rule, for each 2.5°C (5°F) increase in house temperature above 29°C (85°F), the energy content of the feed should be reduced about 22kcal/kg (10 kcal/lb).

The feed energy content can be decreased because more of the energy requirement of the bird can be met by the increase in environmental temperature. As the total amount of energy in the feed is decreased, the proportion of the total feed energy provided by added fat should be increased. The addition of fat may, in certain instances can be as high as 4.5% of the ration. This may require the use of low-energy feed ingredients such as wheat offals and/or soy mill feed (soy hulls). A by-product of the digestion or metabolism of feed is the production of body heat (heat increment).

It is widely recognised that fat has the lowest heat increment of the energy nutrients — i.e., carbohydrate, protein, and fat. In comparison to proteins and carbohydrates, the digestion of fat results in less production of body heat per calorie of feed energy. The heat load of the bird can be reduced by replacing other dietary energy with dietary fat. Generally the energy content of the feed should be reduced gradually in increments of 22-33 kcal/kg (10-15 kcal/lb). Calorie reductions of this magnitude can be made at least twice each week.

When the nutrient density of the formula is increased to compensate for the reduction of feed intake, the protein content of the feed may, in some instances, be reduced by about 0.50% below the calculated value. If this is done, the intake of the needed amino acid can be optimised by providing increased quantities of synthetic amino acid such as methionine and lysine.

Adjusting the intake of protein is important because the body heat produced by protein digestion or metabolism is, as noted earlier, the greatest among the energy nutrients — i.e., carbohydrate, fat, and protein. Restrict the intake of feed about three hours before temperatures are expected to exceed 36°C (95°F) for more than three hours. Adjust the lighting schedule to encourage the consumption of feed in the night and early morning. A midnight feeding or an intermittent lighting programme can encourage feed consumption at night. Vitamin C in the ration (50-300 gm/tonne of feed) can protect birds from the effects of heat stress and enhance the survival of birds exposed to acute heat stress.

Water supply

Heat-stressed birds can dissipate over 80% of their heat production via evaporative cooling. The evaporative heat dissipation extent and calories dissipated per breath are correlated with water consumption level and balance. With reduced water temperature, water consumption would be encouraged, thereby increasing evaporative cooling and heat dissipated per breath. Studies have shown that increasing water consumption by 20% over the basal level can increase heat loss per breath by as much as 30%, with a resulting improvement in performance. The improved performance in this case could be attributed mainly to the increased feed intake to offset a portion of the hypothermic effect, and partly to the improved wellbeing of heat-stressed birds

Water consumption could also be increased by using water troughs in place of nipple or bell-type drinkers, at least during the hot season. With such a system birds would not only be allowed to get enough water, but would also have the chance to submerge their heads and combs in water and hence reduce the heat load by evaporation of water from these body parts.

Website: www.farmergiant.org to read our articles

Blog: farmergiant.info

Shopping Mart: www.farmermartng.com

Trust you will always receive prompt and careful attention as you partner with us.

Dr. Paul Oche Adoyi

08099515923

Chief Executive Officer, Farmergiant Nigeria Limited

No. 56 Shasha Road, Akowonjo, Lagos, Nigeria.

About Farmergiant Nigeria Limited

145 thoughts on “VENTILATION & MANAGING HEAT STRESS IN POULTRY HOUSE

  1. of course like your web-site however you need to take a look at the spelling on quite a few of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling issues and I to find it very bothersome to inform the reality then again I will certainly come again again.
    Here is my site; [url=http://cancer.waw.pl/]cancer.waw.pl[/url]

  2. Wonderful blog! Do you have any suggestions for aspiring writers?
    I’m hoping to start my own blog soon but I’m a little lost
    on everything. Would you suggest starting with a free platform like WordPress or go for
    a paid option? There are so many choices out there
    that I’m totally confused .. Any tips? Thanks a lot!

  3. Hey there! This is kind of off topic but I need some guidance from an established blog. Is it hard to set up your own blog? I’m not very techincal but I can figure things out pretty fast. I’m thinking about creating my own but I’m not sure where to begin. Do you have any tips or suggestions? Many thanks|

  4. I just want to mention I am all new to blogging and site-building and certainly liked your web-site. Almost certainly I’m going to bookmark your site . You surely come with incredible writings. Thank you for revealing your website.

  5. Whats up are using WordPress for your blog platform?
    I’m new to the blog world but I’m trying to get started and set up my own. Do you require any
    html coding expertise to make your own blog? Any help
    would be greatly appreciated!

  6. Very nice post. I just found your weblog and wanted to say
    that I have truly enjoyed surfing around your blog site posts.
    In any case I’ll be subscribing to the feed and
    i also i do hope you write again soon!

  7. Hmm is anyone else experiencing problems with the pictures on this blog loading?

    I’m trying to determine if its a problem on my end
    or if it’s the blog. Any feed-back would be greatly appreciated.

  8. whoah this blog is excellent i love reading your articles.
    Stay up the good work! You know, a lot of persons are hunting around for this information, you could
    aid them greatly.

  9. Appreciating the time and energy you put into your site and in depth information you present.
    It’s great to come across a blog every once in a while that isn’t the same out of
    date rehashed material. Great read! I’ve saved your site and I’m including
    your RSS feeds to my Google account.

  10. Hello There. I found your site using msn. This is certainly an incredibly
    well written article. I’ll be sure to bookmark it and return to see much
    more of your useful info. I appreciate you the post.

    I will definitely comeback.

  11. You actually allow it to be seem quite simple with your
    presentation but I to find this matter to get actually something that I
    think I’d by no means understand. It type of feels too complex and very huge for
    me. I’m having a look ahead for the next publish, I’ll attempt to receive the dangle from it!

  12. I simply want to mention I’m very new to blogging and really savored you’re blog. Probably I’m likely to bookmark your blog post . You absolutely come with superb posts. Regards for sharing your web page.

  13. I’ll immediately snatch your rss while i simply cannot in discovering your e-mail subscription hyperlink or e-newsletter service.
    Do you’ve any? Kindly permit me recognize so as that I
    may just subscribe. Thanks.

  14. It’s appropriate time to make some plans in the future
    and it’s time and energy to be at liberty. I’ve read through this
    post of course, if I could I would like to suggest you few interesting things or advice.
    Maybe you could write next articles making reference to this informative article.
    I want to read more reasons for having it!

  15. Heya just wanted to give you a quick heads up and let you know a few of the pictures aren’t loading
    correctly. I’m not sure why but I think its a linking issue.
    I’ve tried it in two different internet browsers and both show
    the same results.

  16. Hey there just wanted to provide you with a
    fast heads up. The text in your post appear to be running off of the
    screen in Ie. I’m unsure if this is a format issue or something connected with browser compatibility having said that i figured I’d post
    to let you know. The style and design look great
    though! Hope you have the issue solved soon. Kudos

  17. Hey there! This post could not be written any better!
    Reading this post reminds me of my old room mate! He always kept chatting about this.
    I will forward this post to him. Fairly certain he will have a good read.
    Many thanks for sharing!

  18. It’s the best time to develop plans for the future and it really is time and energy to be happy.
    I’ve check this out post and when I could I wish to suggest you few interesting things or tips.
    Perhaps you can write next articles discussing this post.
    I wish to read more reasons for it!

  19. I have to thanks for the efforts you’ve place in penning this blog.

    I’m hoping to see the identical high-grade
    blog articles from you down the road also. In fact, your creative writing
    abilities has inspired me to get my own, personal website now 😉

  20. Hi! Someone during my Myspace group shared this website with
    us thus i came to take a look. I’m definitely enjoying the data.
    I’m book-marking and are tweeting this to my followers!
    Wonderful blog and excellent style and design.

  21. It’s the ideal a chance to develop plans in the future and it’s time to be at liberty.
    I have read this post and when I really could I desire
    to suggest you some interesting things or suggestions. Perhaps you could write next articles talking about this informative
    article. I would like to read more reasons for it!

  22. I’m extremely impressed with your writing skills as well as
    with all the layout to your blog. Is it a paid theme or have you
    modify it yourself? Either way keep within the excellent quality writing, it’s
    rare to appear a great blog like this one nowadays..

  23. Thanks for some other great post. Where else may anyone
    get that kind of info in such an ideal way of writing?

    I have a presentation next week, and I’m on the search for such information.

  24. Somebody necessarily lend a hand to produce critically posts I might state.
    That may be the first time I frequented your website and to date?
    I surprised with the analysis you made to create this kind of publish extraordinary.
    Fantastic activity!

  25. Hey! Someone in my Facebook group shared this website around thus i arrived at give it a look.
    I’m definitely enjoying the information. I’m bookmarking and are
    tweeting this to my followers! Terrific blog and outstanding design.

  26. This is very interesting, You are a very skilled blogger.
    I have joined your rss feed and look forward to seeking more of your
    wonderful post. Also, I’ve shared your web site in my social networks!

  27. Excellent beat ! I wish to apprentice whilst you amend your
    site, how could i subscribe for a blog internet site?
    The account aided us a acceptable deal. I was tiny bit acquainted of the your broadcast offered bright clear idea

  28. I’m curious to determine what blog system you
    might have been using? I’m having some minor security issues with
    my latest site and I would personally prefer to find something more risk-free.
    Are you experiencing any solutions?

  29. Unquestionably feel that you said. Your favorite justification appeared to be on the web
    the simplest thing to be aware of. I say to you, I
    definitely get annoyed while people consider worries
    that they can just don’t find out about. You managed to hit
    the nail upon the top in addition to defined out everything without
    needing unwanted effect , people could go on a signal.
    Will probably be back to get additional. Thanks

  30. Thanks to your personal marvelous posting! I seriously enjoyed reading it, you will
    be a fantastic author. I will make sure to bookmark your blog and
    may even come back very soon. I wish to encourage yourself to continue your great work, have got a nice holiday
    weekend!

  31. There are definitely a whole lot of particulars like that to take into consideration. That is a great level to deliver up. I provide the ideas above as common inspiration however clearly there are questions like the one you carry up the place crucial thing shall be working in sincere good faith. I don?t know if best practices have emerged round issues like that, but I am sure that your job is clearly identified as a good game. Each girls and boys really feel the affect of only a second抯 pleasure, for the remainder of their lives.

  32. Nice post. I learn something more difficult on different blogs everyday. It would all the time be stimulating to learn content material from other writers and follow just a little something from their store. I抎 choose to make use of some with the content on my weblog whether or not you don抰 mind. Natually I抣l offer you a hyperlink in your web blog. Thanks for sharing.

  33. I am only writing to make you understand what a brilliant encounter my friend’s girl undergone using your web site. She even learned numerous issues, with the inclusion of what it’s like to possess an awesome teaching mood to let many more very easily learn specific complicated subject areas. You truly did more than our own expected results. Thank you for producing these warm and friendly, safe, revealing as well as fun tips about this topic to Tanya.

  34. Thanks so much for providing individuals with an extremely wonderful possiblity to discover important secrets from this web site. It’s usually very pleasing and also stuffed with a lot of fun for me personally and my office fellow workers to search your blog really thrice per week to learn the newest things you have. Not to mention, I am always amazed with your breathtaking secrets you serve. Certain 2 areas in this article are indeed the most beneficial we’ve had.

  35. Oh my goodness! an incredible article dude. Thanks Nonetheless I am experiencing situation with ur rss . Don抰 know why Unable to subscribe to it. Is there anyone getting similar rss problem? Anyone who knows kindly respond. Thnkx

  36. I’m also writing to make you be aware of of the fine encounter our girl enjoyed studying yuor web blog. She even learned too many pieces, with the inclusion of what it is like to possess an awesome giving character to make others smoothly understand various specialized things. You undoubtedly did more than our own expectations. Thank you for showing these powerful, safe, informative and as well as easy tips on your topic to Janet.

  37. Nice blog here! Also your site loads up really quick!
    What host are you currently using? Should I get your affiliate connect to your host?
    I wish my site loaded as quickly as yours lol

  38. Killer post! I just shared this and it’s already received 60 shares. Keep up the great work. I visit your site pretty frequently and I always feel a lot smarter after I’m done. Thanks again!

  39. Killer post! I just shared this and it’s already received 60 shares. Keep up the excellent work. I visit your website pretty often and I always feel a lot smarter after I’m done. Thanks again!

  40. Really cool post! I just shared this and it’s already received 60 shares. Keep up the excellent work. I visit your website pretty often and I always feel a little smarter after I’m done. Thanks again!

  41. Thanks a bunch for sharing this with all people you actually recognize what you are talking about! Bookmarked. Kindly additionally consult with my website =). We will have a hyperlink exchange arrangement among us!

  42. I simply want to tell you that I am beginner to blogging and absolutely liked you’re web blog. Very likely I’m want to bookmark your blog . You actually come with impressive articles and reviews. Thanks a bunch for sharing your webpage.

  43. Another thing I have really noticed is always that for many people, bad credit is the response to circumstances beyond their control. For example they may have already been saddled having an illness and as a consequence they have high bills for collections. It could be due to a employment loss or perhaps the inability to do the job. Sometimes divorce process can truly send the funds in a downward direction. Thanks sharing your opinions on this web site.

  44. Hiya, I am really glad I have found this information. Nowadays bloggers publish just about gossips and internet and this is actually annoying. A good web site with interesting content, that’s what I need. Thank you for keeping this site, I’ll be visiting it. Do you do newsletters? Can’t find it.

  45. We wish to thank you just as before for the lovely ideas you offered Jeremy when preparing a post-graduate research and, most importantly, for providing each of the ideas within a blog post. Provided we had known of your blog a year ago, we might have been kept from the unwanted measures we were participating in. Thank you very much.

  46. You really make it seem really easy along with your presentation however I to find this topic to be really something which I feel I would by no means understand. It seems too complex and very huge for me. I’m having a look forward in your subsequent submit, I will try to get the hold of it!

  47. I have been browsing on-line greater than 3 hours as of late, but I never discovered any attention-grabbing article like yours. It¡¦s pretty value sufficient for me. In my opinion, if all webmasters and bloggers made good content material as you probably did, the web will probably be a lot more useful than ever before.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *